SPAN

SPAN 101: Beginning Spanish I

Description
An introduction to the Spanish language and Hispanic cultures, with emphasis on the development of the basic communicative skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing) and grammatical structures. Requires active participation in instructor-coordinated multimedia and online activities as a mandatory component. (Offered every semester). (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 102: Beginning Spanish II

Description
Continues the study of the Spanish language and Hispanic cultures, with emphasis on the development of the basic communicative skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing) and grammatical structures. Requires active participation in instructor-coordinated multimedia and online activities as a mandatory component. (Offered every semester). (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 101)

SPAN 103: Intensive BeginingSpanish I&II

Description
An intensive course designed for beginning students. Emphasis on the development of communicative skills, basic structures, and cultural competence. Covers the equivalent of Spanish 101 and 102 in one semester. Requires active participation in instructor-coordinated multimedia and online activities as a mandatory component. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
4 to 8
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 195: Special Topics

Description
Studies a particular topic relative to the Spanish language or Hispanic cultures. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Credit/ No Credit Available)
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 196: Field Studies

Description
Opportunity for independent field studies.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 197: Independent Study

Description
Allows lower-division students to independently study a particular aspect of Spanish language and Hispanic culture. A written proposal for the study/research must be approved in advance by the sponsoring faculty member and the program chair. Number of credits depends on the nature of the student's academic goals and the consent of the faculty advisor.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 200: Beg Spanish Conversation

Description
Introduces Spanish conversation to support, develop, and strengthen skills in Spanish oral communication. Implements extensive speaking practice using everyday experiences. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 200S: Beg Spanish Conversation

Description
Students work on off-campus activities to develop Spanish conversation supporting, developing, and strengthening skills in Spanish oral communication. Implements extensive speaking practice using everyday experiences. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 201: Intermediate Spanish I

Description
Reviews and develops the fundamentals of Spanish grammar. Emphasizes the development of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills by studying and discussing short reading selections. Also available online. Requires active participation in instructor-coordinated multimedia and online activities as a mandatory component. (Offered every semester). (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 102)

SPAN 202: Intermediate Spanish II

Description
Continues to develop the fundamentals of Spanish grammar. Emphasizes the development of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills by studying and discussing short reading selections. Requires active participation in instructor-coordinated multimedia and online activities as a mandatory component. (Offered every semester). (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 201)

SPAN 203: Inten Interm Spanish 1&11

Description
An intensive intermediate-level Spanish course for highly motivated students who want to complete the equivalent of Spanish 201 and Spanish 202 in one semester. Our aim is to enable you to handle most survival language and cultural needs in a Spanish-speaking context. You will be able to participate in short conversations; ask and answer questions; get into, through, and out of simple survival situations; handle routine social needs; and communicate with language at the intermediate level. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
4 to 8
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 203SL: Beg Spanish Conv/Serv Lrn

Description
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 212: Span For Span Speakers I

Description
For heritage speakers who have an oral/aural knowledge of the Spanish language, but have completed little or no formal study of Spanish. Conducted in Spanish, the course emphasizes the enhancement of Spanish grammar, reading, and writing skills via intensive reading, and written and oral presentations on Latino culture and literature. (Offered fall semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 261: Contemp Chicano Lit:Survy

Description
Surveys Chicano literature by introducing the principal genres of poetry, theater, the novel, the short story, and the essay. Introduces students to such writers as Rudolfo Anaya, Tom?s Rivera, Sandra Cisneros, Ana Castillo, Ron Arias, Jos? Antonio Burciaga, Luis Valdez, and Alurista. Prior knowledge of Spanish not required. Requires Spanish majors to do assignments in Spanish. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 262: Latin Amer Lit in Translation

Description
Critical study of representative authors from colonial times to the twentieth century. Introduces students to key works of such literary masters as Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Ruben Dar?o, Gabriela Mistral, Eduardo Mallea, Ernesto S?bato, Horacio Quiroga, Jos? Mart?, Jorge Luis Borges, Nicol?s Guill?n, Mariano Azuela, Juan Rulfo, etc. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 295: Special Topics

Description
Studies a particular topic in Spanish. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Offered only as interest warrants.)
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 297: Independent Study

Description
Student and faculty member select topic of study and number of credits. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 301: Comp/Oral Practice

Description
Continues to build proficiency as defined by the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. Content-based instruction develops communicative language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing through readings and discussions of authentic Hispanic cultural and literary texts. For students with two or more years of Spanish or an intermediate level of Spanish language proficiency. (Offered fall semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
[Prereq: (Junior OR Senior Standing)]

SPAN 301S: SL in the Latino Community

Description
This course is part of your Spanish language learning experience, and offers you the opportunity to interact in a personal way with members of the local Latino community, thereby enriching your understanding of Hispanic cultures and the Spanish language. As a community-based learning experience, the course provides students with career-related experience working collaboratively with community agencies to address community concerns / issues. (Offered fall semester). (Credit/No Credit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
[prereq: (Junior OR Senior Standing) AND (SPAN 202) AND (WLC Spanish Majors Only)]

SPAN 302: Hist/Phonetic Struct Span Lang

Description
Surveys the development of modern Castillian and Latin American Spanish, its evolution as a Romance language, the Roman period, Visigoth and Arab influences, Native American contributions, and its modern language diversity. Describes the phonology and morphology of modern Spanish. Recommended for students interested in teaching Spanish. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 202)

SPAN 303: Adv Spanish Grammar

Description
Reviews all phases of communication skills with practice in understanding, speaking, and writing grammatically correct Spanish. Teaches specific components of Spanish grammar: the Spanish verbal system, the subjunctive, ser versus estar, and other problematic aspects of grammar. For students planning to teach Spanish. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 304: Intro To Hispanic Literat

Description
Conducted in Spanish, the course introduces the principles of literary analysis, based on reading and discussion of Hispanic literary texts. Includes fiction, drama, essay, and poetry from Spain and Spanish America. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 305: Spanish for The Professions

Description
Designed for students interested in developing a functional use of Spanish for the professions (business, education, law, medicine, social work, etc.), from a Hispanic cultural perspective. Students will have an opportunity to practice and develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. The Spanish-speaking world will provide the cultural context, and the area of business the content area. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 306: Cultur/Civ Span Ltn Amer

Description
Taught in Spanish, presents an historical and cultural overview of Hispanic Latin America from its pre-Columbian origins to the present through works of literature, art, music, and videos. Taught in Spanish. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 202 AND SPAN 213)

SPAN 307: History&Politics Of Mex

Description
Examines Mexico's history and its peoples from indigenous periods to the arrival of Europeans and Spanish colonization including the mission system and rancher?as of California, New Mexico, and Colorado. Focuses on the independence movement and Mexico's relationship with the United States during westward expansion. Examines the 20th century by focusing on the Mexican Revolution and the factors which have resulted in continuous northern migration. Taught in English with Spanish readings for Spanish majors. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 308: Hist/Cultr Aztlan:SW US

Description
Covers the story of indigenous peoples of the southwestern United States: Aztl?n, the Spanish colonial period, the Mexican period, and the acquisition and settlement by the United States. Seeks the exposition of indigenous and Hispanic historical and cultural foundations of the region and the confluence with other Asian and European influences. Taught in English with Spanish readings for Spanish majors. Also available online. (Offered every fall semester and online as interest warrants).
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 309: Hist & Polit Of Latn Amer

Description
Surveys Latin American history focusing on the development of political and social structures since the independence movements of the 19th century. Emphasizes Latin phenomenon as caudillismo, indigenismo, the Church and liberation theology, and the revolutionary movements in the 20th century. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 310: Hispanic Child Lit

Description
Introduces Hispanic children's literature using fairy tales, poetry, essays, and drama. Presents the elements of children's narrative: characterization, setting, narrative structure and pictures, and drawings. Students practice working these basic elements in individual and collaborative group writing and reading exercises. Includes brief, written analytic responses. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 311: US Foreign Policy Pac Rim

Description
Focuses on the success and/or failure of U.S. diplomatic and military interventions in such regions of the world as Central America, The Caribbean, and the Asia/Pacific region. Analyzes U.S. economic and diplomatic relations with Japan, Korea, China, Viet Nam, from a postbellum perspective. Examines the U.S. role during the 20th century revolutionary movements in Cuba, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. Taught in English. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 313: Intro to Spanish Linguistics

Description
Intro to Spanish Linguistics: Presents the principal branches of linguistic study, as it pertains to Spanish: the sound system (phonetics and phonology), the structure of words (morphology), and the structure of sentences (syntax). Additionally, attention is paid to bilingualism, especially Spanish in the US, and how Spanish is spoken/written differently by various social groups (sociolinguistics) and in various Spanish-speaking countries (dialectology).
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 202)

SPAN 315: Intro Translation Span/Eng

Description
Students perform introductory translation assignments from Spanish to English and vice versa. They develop an understanding of translation theory through reading and class discussion and come to understand communicative translation and compare it to a direct, word-for-word approach. Problematic grammatical, discursive, and pragmatic issues are analyzed and the grammar of Spanish is reviewed in detail.
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(Prereq: SPAN 202)

SPAN 316: Span Culture & Civ

Description
Study of the development of Spanish culture & civilization through geography, religion, sociology, and the arts of the Iberian Peninsula with special reference to the ways of thinking and cultural products. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 or instructor's consent.
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 202)

SPAN 321: Masterpieces of Hispanic Lit

Description
Reading and discussion of selected masterworks of literature as they reflect the historical, political, and social context of the Peninsular Spanish experience. Students will be introduced to reading and writing critically, and discussing both form and content within these works. All discussions will be carried out in Spanish. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: SPAN 304)

SPAN 322: Masterpieces Latinamer Lit

Description
Reading and discussion of selected masterworks of literature as they reflect the historical, political, and social context of the Latin American and Caribbean experience. Students are introduced to critically reading, writing, and discussing the form and content of these literary masterpieces. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 304 or Instructor consent.
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
[Prereq: SPAN 304 or Instructor Consent ]

SPAN 325: Hispanic Cinema

Description
The Hispanic and Luso- Brazilian Cinematic Lens- A Memorable Gaze to Human Odyssey: This course will examine the multiple ways that Hispanic and Brazilian filmmakers have seen Hispanic world, its people, religious beliefs and cultures for more than a century. This course provides the student with a range of perspectives on cultural developments in Spain, Brazil, Latin America and the Caribbean from the colonial to the modern period, using critical and literary texts as well as films. Open to every one. Taught in English. Non Prerequisite. (Offered every third semester)
Units:
2 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 328: Latina Life Stories

Description
Explores intersections of ethnicity, race, gender, sexuality, and class through autobiographical and testimonial writings by Chicana, Mexican-origin, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, and mixed-heritage Latinas in the U.S. Students produce multimedia digital stories about their own lives and identities. Offers built-in assessment in HCOM MLO 2 or the concentrations in History, Oral History, and New Media; Chicana/o Latina/o Studies; Comparative American Studies; Women's Studies; or Literature and Film Studies. A literature course from the Literature/ Popular Culture ULR is recommended. (Offered every year in Spring).
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: GE Area A1 and A2 and A3)

SPAN 329: Auto/Biografias

Description
A bilingual English/Spanish course on autobiography, testimonio, life histories, and telenovelas (soaps). Students read and analyze written texts and films, keep journals, and do life writing or multimedia production in either Spanish or English. Offers built-in assessment in HCOM MLO 2 or concentrations in Chicana/o Latina/o Studies; History, Oral History and New Media; or a Spanish Major Learning Outcome in World Languages and Cultures. Requires the ability to understand spoken Spanish. (Offered occasionally.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
(prereq: GE Area A1 and A2 and A3)

SPAN 330: Hispanic Testimonials

Description
A Bilingual English/Spanish Course on individual and collective memoirs, diaries, confessions and traveling accounts. Students read and analyze written texts and films, keep journals, and do life writing or multimedia production in either Spanish or English. (Offered every fourth semester)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 365: The Chicano Novel

Description
Focuses on the reading and analysis of selected Chicano writers whose novels have left a distinctive mark on Chicano Literature. Emphasizes the understanding of Chicano cosmology (society, culture, behavior, values) through the literary texts. No prior knowledge of Spanish required. (Offered every fourth semester, and online as interest warrants.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:
[Prereq: (Junior OR Senior Standing)]

SPAN 370: The Chicano Community

Description
Examines the cultural, social, economic, and political aspects of the Chicano community in an historical and contemporary context. Incorporates field observation and community studies. (Offered fall semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 395: Special Topics

Description
Studies a particular topic relative to the Spanish language or Hispanic cultures. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 396: Field Studies

Description
Individualizes student placement for in-depth field study.
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 397: Independent Study

Description
Individual study of a particular aspect of the culture, language, or civilization of the Spanish-speaking world. A written proposal for the study/research must be approved in advance by the sponsoring faculty member and the program chair. Number of credits depends on the nature of the student's academic goals and the consent of the faculty advisor.
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 397S: Independent Study

Description
Individual study of a particular aspect of the culture, language, or civilization of the Spanish-speaking world. A written proposal for the study/research must be approved in advance by the sponsoring faculty member and the program chair. Number of credits depends on the nature of the student's academic goals and the consent of the faculty advisor. Students enhance Spanish language communication skills via community service in local community agencies. (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 425: La Literatura Mexicana

Description
Exposes students to Mexican literature from its indigenous and Hispanic origins to its more contemporary expressions. Examines and discusses representative authors from all literary periods, including such literary icons as Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Manuel Guti?rrez N?jera, Mariano Azuela, Ignacio Altamairano, Rosario Castellanos, Ruan Rulfo, Octavio Paz Carlos Fuentes, Jos? Agustin, and Laura Esquivel. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 426: Narativa Hispanoamericana

Description
Taught in Spanish, the course studies Spanish American writers of the 20th century by emphasizing short stories and novels from the last 50 years. Uses literary texts to gain an understanding of Latino cultures, societies, and values. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 427: Latin Amer Women Writers

Description
Taught in Spanish, the course focuses on reading and analyzing works from Latin American women writers. Examines fiction by and about women from varied sociocultural backgrounds to discover the diversity and the commonality of female experience in different geographical regions. Students examine the narrative strategies employed by these writers in interpreting social, political, cultural, and religious forces that create gender, class, and ethnic barriers in Latin American society. (Offered every fourth semester.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 428: La Literatura Afrolatina

Description
Exposes students to noteworthy poems and narratives by such 20th century writers as Fortunato Vizcarrondo, Luis Pales Matos, Carmen Col?n, Manuel del Cabral, Nicolas Guillen, Nancy Morej?n, Ana Lydia Vega, Luis Rafael Sanchez, and Jos? Luis Gonzalez. Examines the "African?a"" of peoples from Ecuador to Venezuela
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 495: Special Topics

Description
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 497: Independent Study

Description
Individual study of a particular aspect of the culture, language, or civilization of the Spanish-speaking world. A written proposal for the study/research must be approved in advance by the sponsoring faculty member and the program chair. Number of credits depends on the nature of the student's academic goals and the consent of the faculty advisor.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 595: Special Topics

Description
Studies a particular topic relative to the Spanish language or Hispanic cultures. May be repeated for credit when topics vary.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 596: Field Studies

Description
Individualizes student placement for in-depth field study.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

SPAN 597: Independent Study

Description
Individual study of a particular aspect of the culture, language, or civilization of the Spanish-speaking world. A written proposal for the study/research must be approved in advance by the sponsoring faculty member and the program chair. Number of credits depends on the nature of the student's academic goals and the consent of the faculty advisor.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC

WLC 195: Special Topics

Description
Studies a particular topic in World Languages. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Letter Grade Available)
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 197: Independent Study

Description
Student and faculty member select topic of study and number of credits. (Offered as interest warrants.) (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 201: Intermediate World Languages

Description
Alternative assessment for the third semester of World Languages. Freshmen and Sophomore transfers attempting to satisfy the Language Requirement through assessment must enroll in WLC 201. Junior and senior transfers attempting to satisfy the Language Requirement through assessment, must also enroll in WLC 201. (Letter Grade Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 212: Lang for Heritage Speakers

Description
This course is for heritage speakers who have a moderate proficiency in their Heritage language, but have completed little or no formal study of that language. Conducted in English, the course emphasizes the linguistic and cultural aspects of language ability, and learning strategies; provides an introduction to linguistics, and second language acquisition; incorporates 21st Century Skills and National Standards; and encourages students to think about the social implications of language use. (Credit/ No Credit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 295: Special Topics

Description
Studies a particular topic in World Languages. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Letter Grade Available)
Units:
1 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 297: Independent Study

Description
Student and faculty member select topic of study and number of credits. (Offered as interest warrants.)
Units:
2 to 4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 300: WLC Major ProSeminar

Description
This course introduces students to the majors in Japanese Language and Culture, Spanish or World Language and Cultures. Students acquire knowledge and understanding needed to fulfill Major Learning Outcomes for the programs. Students identify and work with a major advisor to develop individual learning plans. The course examines opportunities in related professional and career paths, including graduate education and teaching credential preparation. (Offered fall semester.)
Units:
2
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 395: Special Topics

Description
With faculty guidance, students design unique learning sequences that are pertinent to their learning plans and not covered in current courses. Students design a study proposal with appropriate faculty members and obtain authorization from their academic center. May be repeated for credit when topics vary. (Credit/NoCredit Available)
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 397: Independent Study

Description
Individual study of a topic or subject of particular interest to the student. A written proposal for the study/research must be approved in advance by the sponsoring faculty member and the program chair. Number of credits depends on the nature of the student's academic goals and the consent of the faculty advisor.
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 397SL: Independent Study SL

Description
Student and faculty member select advanced topic of study and number of credits. (Offered only as interest warrants.)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 400: WLC Major Capstone

Description
Students work with the instructor and WLC faculty advisors to research, synthesize, write and present their Capstone projects. Students will also assemble a Graduation Portfolio reflecting how each MLO was met. This course is required for all Japanese, Spanish and World Languages and Cultures majors. (Offered spring semester.) (Credit/ No Credit Available)
Units:
4
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 497: Independent Study

Description
Units:
1 to 6
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions:

WLC 595: Comm-Based Instr Theor/Pr

Description
Units:
2
Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Registration Restrictions: